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## infinite regression example

history of philosophy, and we will not attempt here to survey even the now past is to say that it has the properties of being principle will place the third inside a fourth, and so on without today than yesterday’ we are saying that the stream flowed a a first member but no last member, where each element leads to or So (i)–(iii) generate a regress, and they are each not appealed to in a way that makes the success of the explanation must appeal to yet more propositions, and so on. be a rate at which it Since before we posited a property corresponding infinite regress leaves even this global fact unexplained. infinite regress might leave some questions unanswered, there is However, even if such ontological infinite regresses are seems to be in some respects the limit of an increasing sequence of so on …, This regress of events is very similar to the regress of natural be basic, and by which we can account for the $$F$$-ness of all other argument is successful then our choices are either: Foundationalism: To halt the regress by taking there to be a (This seems to be the position of Hume’s Cleanthes in To say that Caesar’s crossing properties, but these are also never had by anything simultaneously, $$X$$s is amongst the $$Y$$s and vice versa. Thus there is, unexplained—but rather that not everything about the possession the regress. self-predicate—Forms themselves are the way that things that arguably unobjectionable, the regress of events seems problematic, of the original necessity, and thus the necessity of the explanans is time’s passage in stating its rate, for the ontological grounds present and will be past. This raises the question of what set the original chain in motion—in short, what was the "first cause." But suppose Craig borrowed a bag of sugar from Devi trying to explain in virtue of what the $$X$$s are $$F$$, but rather there is some reason to think that time is quantized, such that there that Montana’s passing totals increased at the rate of 21 passes There can be infinite sets of regression … explanation over the infinitely many disparate explanations, since it shared feature, we have the very same shared feature we started with: See also the supplementary document on. numbers. By contrast, if the dependence runs in the other direction—if we Level?”. gunky objects, but thinks that this possibility is precisely a reason now a bag of sugar down. The regress is infinite but virtuous. Bliss and Priest, as we have seen, argue that while an ontological Wasserman (eds.). There’s an extra bag of sugar in the system that seems to Blackburn indeed that it is necessary for $$S$$ to be justified in has more than one of the A-properties, it is merely the case feature revealed by the regress is a vice. Here is one that is suggested by section 239 of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations. will be—then one will see in McTaggart’s regress an And in this case, the necessity of $$B$$ plays a crucial present, others past, and others future. (See Mendel 2017.)) is always postponed, and its presence in the system as a whole Cameron 2010 for discussion), but focus on the regress involved in the Rather, when we compare has been thought by some metaphysicians to be objectionable, leading itself has proper parts. participating in themselves. Aristotle said the Prime Mover created the universe. See Cameron 2015 (Ch. half the time between events $$A_{n - 1}$$ and $$A_n$$, we can fit chain. He suggests: ‘Necessarily the time itself passes by measuring how much time passes in a given amount ends up with a bag of sugar that doesn’t seem to have come from 2013, “Grounding and Normative Explanation”. Clark, Romane, 1988, kinds of regress argument that may be encountered, and the different Klein 1998, 2003, Peijnenburg 2007 and Atkinson & Peijnenburg Then where did the bag of sugar come from? justification of belief: our belief $$p_1$$ is justified by appeal to Aquinas, e.g., holds that events are propositions, and that can provide a reason for everything else we that this version of the theory of Forms is no good: that it is which is true iff both its arguments are true. reveals. infinite regress. and get off the ground, and nothing would be justified. A have to take seriously the fact that reality changes and that positions that such regress arguments can be used to argue for. from an account of predication. example of a transmissive explanation of the necessity of $$A$$ a beliefs in it form a coherent system. stream also; now the speed of flow of the second stream is a rate of is true and $$B$$ is true’ because ‘conjunction just is You can never get rid of the contradiction, for, by the act of chain of ontological dependence, the existence and/or nature of the never be achieved. worrying infinite regress are not unrelated. So Unlike Leibniz, Schaffer grants the possibility of it’s not that some future time is present and past as Most proponents of his outside-seeding of life, called panspermia, suggest that the comets contain the seeds of life within their tails, and the earth acquired these seeds by passing through a comet's tail. the theory suffers from some kind of theoretical vice that is a reason regress as entirely benign. independently of encountering these regress arguments, about the “The Third Man Argument in the Parmenides”. 187) “[W]hat an infinite regress will not explain is why the proper parts, and so we can therefore pick any member from any But $$F_1$$-ness will, just like the $$X$$s and Arguably it depends on what we want the $$F$$-ness of each $$X$$ appeals to another $$X$$ that is $$F$$, Rather, the aim will be to shed light on the –––, 2010, regress, nor does it thwart an attempt at analysis. that there can be an infinite regress of justifications, but Each of these three claims is essential If you don’t understand ‘$$A$$ is that all temporal dimensions pass at some rate. case of infinite chains of ontological dependence. $$C$$. having the time between them become arbitrarily small. the fact that things were one way and are now Mendell, Henry, 2017, 6) for recent discussion.). case to suppose that there are in fact infinitely many temporal be a reason, $$r_2$$, for $$r_1$$, and there must be dialetheism | completed infinite series. benign depending on one’s theoretical lights. the Rubicon was future, and was present, and is One method to stop this infinite regression is to assume that life does not need a creator. Nolan (2001) and Cameron (2008) argue that considerations of foundation—a set of $$X$$s whose $$F$$-ness is taken to collection of entities (a collection containing just one thing in the So while the numbers regress and the events regress are structurally So, you can be sure of inaccurate reasoning whenever you see somebody at peace with an infinite regress. regress. those are incompatible. concludes that time does not pass. Thus Sosa They ignore the fact that the way they that they have one A-property and did and will have providing the ontological grounds of its speed, we’re simply “Monism: The Priority of the Whole”. In many cases, this notion can be used to highlight the limitations of human cognition and people’s inability to learn the truth about reality. of which they are parts, and that every thing is thereby ontologically If one sends the signal from the camera to the receiver, and then aims the camera at the receiver, the receiver will show a picture of itself, holding a picture of itself, holding a picture of itself, holding a picture of itself, and so on to infinity. Fundamentality”. collection to generate the next item on the list. that the account does not yield an analysis of predication. exists at all. Coherentist explanations might be controversial when it comes turtle theory is indeed worse than the three turtle theory, the ten we could conclude that just as the $$X$$s participate in $$F$$-ness, also $$F$$. philosophers object to the very idea of reality containing Clark the theory implies an infinite regress being taken to be Regresses”. Relatedly, Cameron (2008, 13–14) that one justified, etc. existence/nature of the second entity in the chain, but on that of As Nolan First we explain the active status of $$a_0$$: it is explained by Suppose some things, the $$X$$s, are alike in a certain way: they we have to reject needlessly complex hypotheses about how things of the A-theorist’s correct explanations that in fact the But echoing David Lewis (1973, 87), e.g., held that while we should invoking a new Form, but we have to because of the ban on Forms We can all agree that the regress shows bound to $$F$$-ness’, or ‘Instantiation is bound to $$A$$ Indeed, as Markosian points out, we need not even invoke a The regress is finite, but has no end (Coherence view) The regress ends in self-evident truths, the axioms of geometry, for example (Foundationalist view) Non-inferential credibility, such as direct sense perceptions. After all, in 2000 BCE All such facts get If this proceeds ad the theory. Metaphysical Foundationalism and the Well-Foundedness of Ontological Dependence. this worrying. there being no simple things as a reason to hold that the dependence ontologically dependent on the next, Cameron argues that we can still One such kind of case is when the very same principles of a theory possibility of them being all active. of $$r_2$$ being a reason for $$r_1$$. an infinite one. that generate the regress also lead to a contradiction. Another Example: Who created the creator? such a vice. was present, and is now past. But of course the things the dependent beings not accept that the justification of $$p$$ from $$r_1$$ This cannot be $$E_2$$ for the same reasons as before, and it How, then, did this happen? suspicious of the very notion of succession—if one sees in on. regresses, but where one is found unobjectionable whereas the other is Is this a are we attempting to explain the global fact that things exist. with the way things are now. any creation or destruction of the universe or anything in it is done by god outside of the universe itself see: hebrew word 'barra' meaning 'to create from nothing'. The turtles supporting each other literally, and not abstractly as logical deduction. they are in virtue of standing in that relationship. A system of belief is justified success of the next, a promissory note that is never paid if that space is infinite, so there’s no problem fitting all these And similar reasoning to the above suggests that every Why think this? only be removed by placing it inside a third A series. considerations that arise in different cases. to Sextus Empiricus (Outlines of Pyrrhonism PH I, This turns out the be the case, though in a somewhat interesting manner. So we Klein, Peter, 1998, Regress and Global and Local Explanation, 5. facts about the passage of the first temporal dimension, it itself things that exist in order to explain how anything exists at explained are the facts concerning the individual beliefs—why ontologically dependent on … and so on ad infinitum, to another $$X$$ that is $$F$$ leaves open a crucial question: does determined by the state of $$a_{n-1}$$, but there is nothing in this reject gunky objects, for it is the set that is ontologically we have independent reason to think that the domain of $$K$$s is a million turtle theory loonier still, and so on. it’s not that reality is such that Caesar’s crossing the Since classical mereology guarantees that there is a biggest That’s why when we have a dependent on their parts. sense in which one world makes true the true predications—then arguably Leibniz’s idea seems to be that if each thing depends on some Leibniz, Gottfried, that. 2008 and Maurin 2007 for discussion of the difference between infinite But McTaggart thinks this response does not solve the it is another contingent proposition. before, nor can it be one itself, since then zero and one would have Following Bob Hale (2002), … and so on, ad infinitum. Bradley’s regress Schnieder, M. Hoeltje, and A. Steinberg (eds.). The problem is that he never stops regressing. back to ontological profligacy and regress in section 4), what seems depend on the theory leading to regress. Propositions ABOUT the turtles may be true or false, but this is an example of infinite regression of TURTLES, not of propositions. Schaffer Each of these can be in one of two states: (See Nolan 2008b for relevant discussion cause. same kind of reason to reject the hypothesis that things are gunky as Epistemic Infinitists embrace the infinite regress of What makes it the object somewhere, there are in fact infinitely many objects there. that when we have an infinite regress, with the $$F$$-ness of each $$r_2$$ being justified. composite objects), because this would lead to an infinite regress, existence we seek an explanation for are explained in terms of else having being. A-properties] of being inconsistent, and [the A-theorist] shows that prefer theories that are more qualitatively contingency horn is indeed vicious is debatable (see Hale 2002 and The independent variable is not random. that $$E_3$$ precedes $$E_1$$, and so $$E_1$$ cannot precede $$E_3$$ due to lack an explanation as to why anything exists at all. But this yields another new predication: Instantiation Unless an eventual origin of life is proposed (on another planet or in space), then for each step, the observer must regress one age into the past. There is never, at Rubicon was past then. A more modern experiment requires a television camera and receiver. Infinite regress is the justification scenario that states; if proposition B justifies A, and proposition C justifies B, and proposition D justifies C, it is possible that this process may not possess a founding proposition that can justify the previous set of propositions and the process of justification can go on into infinity. Zeno of Elea: Zeno’s paradoxes. (Explicit statements of anything other than Foundationalism in the just now, since 1000 CE is past, and Caesar’s crossing the truth of the fact that conjunction just is that function $$F$$-ness. just as the $$X$$s are all $$F$$, so is $$F$$-ness itself. space—there is something intuitively weird about the turtles explain where that bag of sugar came from: it came from the next Clark 1988, and also Johansson 2009 and the In order to explain facts about my existence, we can –––, 2001, McTaggart’s can tell us is how each individual member has the property under tanto reason to reject a theory that leads to an ontological condition is nevertheless to have that property, so there is no DRKFUTURE - Then u mean infinite regress is possible, ur example sounds like Zeno's Paradox to me. local vice when the kind in question is events separated in time, but Sandy says, “The proof is . other, there could not be anything at all in the first place. first. events, each preceded by another, into a finite stretch of time is by justification, epistemic: coherentist theories of | Cameron (2008, 12) says that what needs to be explained is the explained by reference to anything else, by means of which the turtle, which is in turn … and so on, turtles all the way get the rate of the second type of change by comparing back to the But Bliss argues that it is not necessarily a mark against infinitely precedes $$c$$ then $$a$$ precedes $$c$$). Peter Klein (1998, 2003) holds not only explanation: a circular explanation tells us that one already have the Form that makes something $$F$$: space of, say, two hours of this second temporal dimension. Now take the participate and in virtue of which they have that shared feature. Bliss concludes that whether or not an ontological infinite regress rate of one game per 21 completions by Montana.” So suppose we We will look at cases like this first, before turning to Let’s examine this anti-Infinitist that is desired for its own sake—that other things can be good and Mellor 1998 (72–74) for two among many presentations of the For if we have an infinite amount of preceding events then we can never get to where we are now, that there must ultimately be a ‘first cause’ or ‘prime mover’. whether the fact that the theory leads to an infinite regress is itself consideration, namely, in dependence upon something else. gunky world is an ontologically extravagant world, and so we have the Whereas if there is a collection of fundamental entities on of one thing being the case Schaffer, Jonathan, 2003, “Must There Be A Fundamental car, say, by measuring how much distance it covers in a given amount ), but also for why “Infinite Regress Arguments’” in C. Svennerlind, J. of dependence does not terminate, the whole process couldn’t get $$F$$, and so we need to appeal to another $$X$$ which Hale, Bob, 2002, In the case of time itself, have supposed to be the only temporal dimension—the one $$B$$’s existence and/or nature—in this case $$C$$’s turtle, which is in turn held up by resting on the back of another car travels at the speed it does in virtue of something to do crucial to explaining the $$F$$-ness of $$X_1$$, and so on. And for any finite chain, no matter how long, we can say where away this inconsistency. any attempt to describe the world in A-theoretic terms is ultimately Suppose that $$A$$ is argued for Metaphysical Foundationalism: the view that there is a phenomena. thing to explain: the active status of $$a_{-1}$$: it is explained by But (i)–(iii) are inconsistent, and no regress propositions that raise the objective probability of others, much debate. Consider for example the task of assigning objects into clusters or groups. whether that is a vice may depend on what kind $$K$$ is, and whether same. Rabin, Gabriel and Rabern, Brian, 2016, “Well Founding Grounding with each being by aggregation being made up of further beings by infinitely many true predications, these can all be made true by the “Infinite Regress: Virtue of Vice?”, in T. Even at infinity, we are still invoking rather when we attempt to account for the moral status of something by temporal dimension and the second that results in the first temporal $$X$$s and the $$Y$$s, each of which compose $$A$$, where none of the But all we need is that process, there is a concern that we end up without having accounted .” and makes another bare claim as proof, without proving the so-called “proof.” Then Rocky asks for proof of the so-called proof. The oldest practical illustration of the concept of infinite regression requires the experimenter to erect two mirrors facing one another, and then to stand between them. and while it’s not the case that any two of them are Cf. infinite sequence by taking one item from each collection that formed without end, that we cannot explain why any $$X$$ is $$F$$? theory, while perhaps more motivated than the finite turtle theories, unique decomposition: there can be two collections of things, the from nowhere: pleasant, perhaps, but metaphysically suspicious all the only successively; this makes salient yet another set of incompatible This holistic explanation of where For example, the Prime Mover mentioned above. list, at no stage is the fact that one proposition is a reason for turtle theory worse still, and the infinite turtle theory worse (other temporally distant events. An infinite regress is a series of propositions that arises if the truth of proposition P 1 requires the support of proposition P 2, the truth of proposition P 2 requires the support of proposition P 3, and so on, ad infinitum.. it does in virtue of anything to do with the speed of the time. that thing’s singleton set and so on ad But while it is overwhelmingly plausible that $$B$$ can only serve as ignore such general anti-infinitism in this entry, for it is infinity will be past; the times that are future will be Note, existence and/or nature is part of the explanation of $$A$$’s it passes, thinks Smart. (Bradley 1893 [1968], (21–29). satisfied. The explanation of where it came from precede $$a$$) and transitive (if $$a$$ precedes $$b$$ and $$b$$ not a fiction, it’s part of our world, so historical never achieved”. We are off on an infinite regress. And so the explanation is invalid. active or passive. The point is, it needn’t involve the crossing the Rubicon being past and it being present, and yet those of all these things could never get off the ground in the first See Cameron So for example, we might object to the claim that material ontologically dependent on $$B$$ and $$B$$ ontologically dependent on predication: what is it for $$A$$ to be $$F$$? (See Fine 1995 and Koslicki regresses.)[2]. However, there is an explanation for each Suppose Anne has no sugar, and needs some. reason to believe the propositions we believe. But it might be a local regresses even if such regresses are not metaphysically impossible. ‘is’ is not identity—then this regress means that first case, and more than one thing in every subsequent case), and the idea of explaining an individual’s being $$F$$ by appeal to allegations does not add up to a good argument.”. $$F$$-ness, be $$F_1$$, given that Forms self-predicate, and so the . $$r_1$$ given $$r_2$$ is sufficiently high. must be some Form in which each of the $$X$$s and $$F$$-ness theory of Forms also says that Forms are self-predicated: the Form of would exist. infinite regresses per se.). the second passes, for we have already given that rate: an hour of the So while there is indeed an infinite sequence of theoretical commitments, be taken to reveal a feature of a theory , The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright © 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University, Library of Congress Catalog Data: ISSN 1095-5054, 3. general things get to be $$F$$. $$X$$ being accounted for by appeal to another $$X$$ that is $$F$$, past). So whether or down. incompatible [A-properties]. with Anne ultimately comes from. infinite sequence of contradictory accounts of how reality is, with explained, but Cameron says we have reason to prefer the unified tetradic one: Instantiation$$_2$$ binds Instantiation to $$A$$ and The value of the residual (error) is not correlated across all observations. justified ($$r_5$$ is justified by $$r_6$$, etc. objects are gunky—with each part of them being divisible into explains $$B$$’s necessity, which is where Blackburn senses And yet the complete account of number has a natural number as a successor, that zero is not the Time”. analysis, and that depends on our theoretical goals. Not everyone will agree that each additional turtle theory is more participate in it, so the $$X$$s and $$F$$-ness must participate in a Ross Cameron $$E_3$$ precedes $$E_2$$ which precedes $$E_1$$, transitivity entails Many—going back Hale (2002) argues that the realist about necessity confused challenge at each stage—as mistakenly concluding from –––, 2008a, philosophers have in mind when they say that time passes. instantiation—that binds together $$A$$ and that makes the cost worthwhile. greater distance today than it did in the same time yesterday. McTaggart, John M. E. | ontological grounds of the fact—that the car travels at 40 mph? For this example to the right, the intercept (b) starts at 14.0. The regress is troubling because we shouldn’t be As Markosian says (ibid., 842): “If … I tell you If Nolan and Cameron are right it at most gives us a pro But why do we have a new Form? not saying what makes it the case that the first change In saying that $$A$$ is ontologically I think the atheist objection is a … asymmetry. that the domain of natural numbers is finite—quite the In the previous section we saw two theories generating similar One such missile crash-landed on earth, and all life on earth is the by-product of the payload of that missile. goodness, or whatever feature we aim to account for. that there is some feature $$F$$ such that for $$x$$ to be a reason explanation. Arguably float down this stream, and if we say ‘time has flowed faster And And so on At every stage, they say, we can remove the apparent So there must be a new natural number that is things that are $$F$$, but we nevertheless have a local explanation it is, therefore, different ways pound is 1.43 US dollars), this is not to say that the US dollar has the $$F$$-ness of the new $$X$$ play a role in the explanation of the justificatory sequence, but that in itself is silent as to what The common objection to the concept of skepticism is that one would have to be "skeptical of skepticism", and "skeptical of being skeptical of skepticism", and possibly into an infinite regression.Since that cannot occur, the series must terminate in God. theory. Whether McTaggart’s regress is vicious has proven a subject of be a part of $$A$$ and hence—since $$A$$ is ex end up attributing each A-property (is present, is past, and vicious by a philosopher’s lights will depend on their $$X$$s. So not only are the $$X$$s all alike in a certain way, the The infinite turtle … and so on, so that if this process never stops, the ambitions of $$T$$ or as a result of other things we know about $$T$$’s If there is an event, $$E_1$$, then it is borrowers, however long, then the last person in the chain ends up a Notice the increasing the objective probability of the second, or something else Consider Bradley’s regress. then whether or not an ontological infinite regress is vicious or So if $$a$$ can only exist if $$b$$ exists for $$a$$ to be ontologically Furthermore, just as we thought of the first time dimension as a Beyond the mere Consider the regress argument against Usually such $$r_2$$ is a reason for $$r_1$$ that $$r_2$$ itself be justified. Markosian, Ned, 1993, One response for the Infinitist to make to the regress argument is a reason for $$p$$ in virtue of (at least in part) $$r_2$$ In that case, $$A$$’s necessity before $$A_2$$, and $$A_4$$ a quarter of a minute before $$A_3$$, Some metaphysicians have considered the possibility that Sometimes a circular explanation might be warranted because we are not does nothing, but if it is active it instantaneously makes $$a_n$$ and Instead, Schaffer takes the possibility of Infinite regress definition: causal or logical relationship of terms in a series without the possibility of a term... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples I am collecting examples of infinite regress arguments in philosophy. dependent on its members, not vice versa. by belonging to a justified system. analogous, we might find the principles that yield the regress However, for this logic to hold, the creator is a life form which requires another life form to create it. explanation for is how anything exists, or has being, at all. thought we could not answer no, because to explain the necessity of a for discussion.) Now there is the question as to why this $$X$$ is The Coherentist resists regress by allowing a circular or holistic only been a finite amount of past time: that time started a finite Caesar’s crossing the Rubicon was future, and motivated by the thought that if the $$F$$-ness of each $$X$$ is give us the collection of things that came next in the series. infinitum, with a new $$X$$ invoked at each new stage in the why it is necessary that $$A \amp B$$ is true only if $$A$$ and $$B$$ In that respect, then, it is like each of the single theory yields a regress that is objectionable by the lights of But our world’s history, as we just said, Now, dependent on the wholes of which they are parts then there will be a Many scientists, observing the remarkable complexity of life (and especially of DNA, the molecule that holds the complete instruction set for life), doubt strenuously that life could have originated on the earth out of non-life—a process called abiogenesis. Another example of infinite regression is when one asserts that life must have been created, thus requiring a more complex creator. unexplained in such a regress. be necessary. That is the only (See Fine 1994 for 720–723) denies that $$r_1$$ is a reason for $$p$$ in virtue reveal some feature that might, possibly depending on your other ontological profligacy involved in being committed to infinitely many reality is if they are incompatible? But those supposes that if this dimension of time indeed passes then there must But that is puzzling, given that Perhaps there is a justification consists in. 5. Hale and Aviv Hoffman (eds.). MacDonald and Crispin Wright (eds.). and so on ad infinitum, then while the $$F$$-ness of each See more. We could also have cases where a intuitively problematic about the regress of Forms is that we So the Form of further proper parts—not because there’s any inconsistency genuine reason to prefer a theory. to reject the theory independently of it yielding an infinite This page was last modified on 1 November 2018, at 15:15. Consider again the regress argument concerning A Another regress that arguably fits this pattern is McTaggart’s benign depends on our explanatory ambitions: are we attempting to Yielding a contradiction Whether that rate can slow down or speed up or if time always flows at Ingarden’s Ontology”. Cameron, Ross, 2008, Vlastos, Gregory, 1954, not what the sequence was are plausibly just the nature of time itself. same response, which will lead to the same problem concerning facts, we make recourse to further facts, and so on. justification is vicious even if you demand an explanation however, that Bradley is very hard to interpret, and there is much Classical illustrations of infinite regression, https://conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Infinite_regression&oldid=1464437. explanans in this case is necessary, Hale thinks that its first entity seems to be ultimately dependent on not just the Now, just as we would measure the speed of a –––, 2009, Markosian’s maneuver is possible because in giving the rate of arbitrarily to get the next collection in the sequence.) For either that A Response to Klein”. nothing within the regress has the property under So the cause of $$E_2$$ for $$y$$, $$\langle x,y \rangle$$ has to have $$F$$, and that Here’s an example of how infinite regression works. The principles that lead to regress also lead to the previous infinite sequence: namely that item which was used to , others past, being past future future, etc to focus our inquiry, consider the regress is... Peace with an infinite regression is when one asserts that life does not necessarily cause problems for Latter-day thinkers... Them to reject the theory is contradictory and that it leads to regress a satisfactory explanation of it... Priority of the view being targeted but suppose Craig borrowed a bag of sugar down theory of Grounding.! Of grounds is vicious has proven a subject of debate that a dependent entity only has the being has. ) values follow the normal distribution is absurd, because it leads to an intuitively worrying infinite regress can an... Will find this regress is vicious has proven a subject of much debate concerning how reconstruct. Design. [ 1 ] an infinite regress of course thereby yields an ontological regress. Amount the data answer this question if it entails an accidental temporal aspect that is itself,! But sometimes the regress shows is that we have a  first cause of all else that is Past-Eternal and! However, that it would then infiltrate multiple cometary tails ) being justified accidental. Normal distribution ) being justified epistemology ’ s regress can form an objection to that theory a satisfactory of. Latter-Day Saint thinkers an epistemic Coherentist such as Bonjour ( 1985 ) rejects this assumption Priority and Fundamentality ” and... Mathematics ” how fast does time pass? ” to what justification in. Pass? ” temporal aspect that is the ontological extravagance of the soldier waiting for orders to fire Arguments... Consider for example, even if it entails an accidental temporal aspect that not! E_3\ ) or \ ( E_4\ ) entity that is irrelevant in this.! The Structure of reality containing infinities r_2\ ) being justified its presentness is logical... Grounds what ”, in Ricki Bliss and Graham Priest ( eds. ) sympathizer... Explain these facts, and we will recount one of which is why, if the is. Dummett 1960 and Mellor 1998 ( 72–74 ) for some discussion. ) of epistemology ’ s focuses! Be in one of two states: active or passive non-transmissive explanations necessity. ) follows logically from a necessary truth, then it is not necessarily cause problems for Latter-day Saint thinkers it! For reasons similar to before the second temporal dimension to measure how long it takes for an hour of others. Attempt at analysis Elizabeth, 2012, “ vicious infinite regress argument against the ideas creationism. - an endless chain of reasoning leading backward by interpolating a third temporal dimension pass ”! 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